Date of membership: 14 January 1976

Short name: Venezuela

Capital: Caracas


Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana.

Area: 916,445 sq km

Land boundaries: 4,993 km

Border countries: Brazil 2,000 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2.813 km

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds.

Environment - international agreements: Party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94.

Economic indicators

Total at current prices   150 117 Millions USD 2015
Per capita at current prices 4990 USD 2015
Growth rate per capita at 
constant prices
-18.2 % 2018
Imports of goods and services 
(GDP at current prices)
8.2 % 2020
Exports of goods and services
(GDP at current prices)
9.3 % 2020

Source: Venezuela: Economic National ProfileCEPALSTAT. Databases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC.  Inquiry: February 24, 2022 

Socio-demographic indicators  

Total population   28435.9 (000) 2017
Life expectancy NA Years 2015-2020
Women NA Years 2015-2020
Men NA Years 2015-2020
Public health expenditure 
as a percentage of GDP
53.6 % 2018
Literacy rate for persons between
the ages of 15 to 24
98.8 % 2016
Net rate of enrolment in 
primary education
90.4 % 2017
Net rate of enrolment in 
secondary education
76.6 % 2017
Public expenditure on education
as a percentage of GDP
1.3   % 2017
Gini Coefficient 0.38 % 2014
Uemployment 6.8 % 2019
Migartion 10.9 % 2020-2025

Source: Venezuela: National Socio-Demographic Profile. ECLAC. 
 Inquiry: February 24, 2022. NA= Not available

Languages: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects


Administrative divisions: 23 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 federal district (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependency (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales, Distrito Federal, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia.
Note: The federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands.

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

Constitution: 30 December 2009

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Chief of state: President Nicolás Maduro (since 19 April 2013); Vice President: Delcy Rodríguez (since June 14, 2018)

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (165 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; three seats reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela).

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)

Internet code: .ve

Official Web Portal: