Official name: REPUBLIC OF PERU

Date of membership: 29 April 1976

Short name: Peru

Capital: Lima


Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador.

Area: 1,285,220 sq km

Land boundaries: 5,536 km

Border countries: Bolivia 1,075 kms, Brasil 2,995 kms, Chile 171 kms, Colombia 1,800 kms Ecuador 1,420 kms

Coastline: 2,414 km

Natural resources: Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas.

Environment - international agreements: Party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements.

Economic indicators 

Total at current prices 201 703 Millions 
Per capita at current prices 6117 USD 2020
Growth rate per capita at constant prices -12.2 % 2020
Imports of goods and services
(GDP at current prices
21.1 % 2020
Exports of goods and services  
(GDP at current prices)
22.4 % 2020

Source: Peru: Economic National Profile. CEPALSTAT. Databases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: February 24, 2022

Socio-demographic indicators  

Total population 32 971.9 (000) 2020
Life expectancy 77 Years 2020_2025
Women 80 Years 2020_2025
Men 75 Years 2020_2025
Public health expenditure 
as a percentage of GDP
5.2 % 2018
Literacy rate for persons between tge
ages of 15 to 24
99.4 % 2020
Net rate of enrolment in primary
98.2 % 2020
Net rate of enrolment in secondary
96.3 % 2020
Public expenditure on education 
as a percentage of GDP
4.2 % 2020
Gini Coefficient 0.46 % 2020
Unemployment 7.6 % 2020
Migartion -1.9 % 2020_2025

Source: Peru: National Socio-Demographic Profile. CEPALSTAT. Data Bases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: February 24, 2022

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages.


Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province (provincia constitucional): Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali.

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 31 December 1993

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military and national police may not vote.

Executive branch: Chief of state: President Dina Boluarte (since 7 December 2022).

note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally, the constitution provides for two vice presidents.

Legislative branch: Unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)

Internet country code: .pe

Official Portal Web: