Date of membership: 02 February 1976

Short name: Nicaragua

Capital: Managua


Location: Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Costa Rica and Honduras.

Area: 130,370 km2

Land boundaries: 1,231 km

Border countries: Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Natural resources: Gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish

Environment - international agreements: Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands.

Economic indicators  

Total at current prices   52938 Millions USD 2020
Per capita at current prices 12269 USD 2020
Growth rate per capita at constant prices -17.9 % 2020
Imports of goods and services (GDP at current prices) 36.5 % 2016
Exports of goods and services (GDP at current prices) 39.2 % 2016

Source: Nicaragua: Economic National Profile.  CEPALSTAT. Databases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: February 24, 2022

Socio-demographic indicators

Total population   6624.6 (000) 2020
Life expectancy 75 Años 2020_2025
Women 79 Años 2020_2025
Men 72 Años 2020_2025
Public health expenditure as a percentage of GDP 8.6 % 2018
Literacy rate for persons between the ages of 15 to 24 91.6 % 2015
Net rate of enrolment in primary education 96.3 % 2010
Net rate of enrolment in secondary education 64.4 % 2010
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 3.4 % 2019
Gini Coefficient 0.49 % 2014
Unemployment 5.0 % 2020
Migration -2.4 % 2020-2025

Source: Nicaragua: National Socio-Demographic Profile. CEPALSTAT. Data Bases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: February 24, 2022

Languages: Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census)

Note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast.


Administrative divisions: 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonomista); Atlantico Norte, Atlantico Sur, Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas.

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 9 January 1987; revised in 1995, 2000, and 2005

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch: President Daniel Ortega Saavedra (since 10 January 2017); Vice President Rosario Murillo (since 10 January 2017).

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (92 seats; members are elected by proportional representation and party lists to serve five-year terms; one seat for previous President, one seat for runner-up in previous Presidential election.

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (16 judges elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly).

Internet code: .ni

Oficial Portal Web: