Date of membership: 4 December 1975

Short name: Panama

Capital: Panama City


Location: Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

Area: 78,200 sq km

Land boundaries: 555 km

Border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Natural resources: Copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower

Environment - international agreements: Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation. 
Note: Strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean.

Economic indicators 

Total at current prices  52938 Millions USD 2020
Per capita at current prices 12269 USD 2020
Growth rate per capita at constant prices -17.9 % 2020
Imports of goods and services (Share in national GDP) 36.5 2020
Exports of goods and services (Share in national GDP) 39.2 % 2020

Source: Panama: Economic National Profile. CEPALSTAT. Databases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: Febrary 24, 2022

Socio-demographic indicators

Total population   4 314.8 (000) 2020
Life expectancy 79 Años 2020_2025
Women 82 Años 2020_2025
Men 76 Años 2020_2025
Public health expenditure as a percentage of GDP 7.3 % 2018
Literacy rate for persons between the ages of 15 to 24 98.9 % 2019
Net rate of enrolment in primary education 88.7 % 2020
Net rate of enrolment in secondary education 68.6 % 2020
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 3.1 % 2019
Gini Coefficient 0.51 % 2019
 Unemployment 18.5 % 2020
Migration 1.7 % 2020_2025

Source: Panama: National Socio-Demographic Profile. CEPALSTAT. Data Bases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: Febrary 24, 2022

Languages: Spanish (official)


Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia): Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama and Veraguas. 5 comarcas: Nobe Bugle, Kuna Yala, Wagandí, Madugandí y Enbera Wonan.

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821).

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted 1978, 1983, 1994, and 2004.

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: Chief of state: President:  Laurentino Cortizo (since July 1, 2019 to July 1 2024). Vicepresidente: José Gabriel Carrizo (since July 1, 2019 to July 1 2024).
Note: The president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government.

Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly (formerly called Legislative Assembly) or Asamblea Nacional (78 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; note - in 2009, the number of seats will change to 71).

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed for 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal.

Internet country code: .pa

Official Web Portal: