Short name: Colombia

Date of membership: 18 June 1979

Capital: Bogota


Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district (distrito capital): Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada.

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

Constitution: July 5, 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Chief of state: President Ivan Duque (since August 2018). Vicepresident: Martha Lucia Ramirez (since August 2018)
Note: The president is both the chief of state and head of government .

Legislative branch: Bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms).

Judicial branch: Four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms).

Internet code: .co

Official Portal Web:


Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama.

Area: 1,138,910 sq km

Land boundaries: 6,004 km

Border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km.

Coastlines: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower.

Environment - international agreements: Party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 9.

Economic indicators

Total at current prices   313901 Millions USD 2017
Per capita at current prices 6398 USD 2017
Growth rate per capita at constant prices 1.8 % 2017
Country share in regional GDP 5.8 % 2017
Imports of goods and services (% of GDP at current prices) -19.7 % 2017
Exports of goods and services (% of GDP at current prices) 14.6 % 2017

Source: CEPALSTAT. Colombia: National Economic ProfileDatabases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC.  On line. Inquiry: July 07, 2019.

Socio-demographic indicators

Total population  49 835 (000) 2015
Life expectancy 75 Years 2015-2020
Women 78 Years 2015-2020
Men 71 Years 2015-2020
Public health expenditure as a percentage of GDP 6.2 % 2015
Literacy rate for persons between the ages of 15 to 24 98.7 % 2016
Net rate of enrolment in primary education 91.3 % 2017
Net rate of enrolment in secondary education 78.8 % 2017
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 4.4 % 2017
Gini Coefficient 0.51 % 2017
Unemployment 9.9 % 2017

Source: Colombia: National Socio-Demographic Profile. CEPALSTAT. Data Bases and Statistical Publications.ECLAC. On line. Inquiry: July 07, 2019.

Languages: Spanish (official)