Short name: Colombia

Date of membership: 18 June 1979

Capital: Bogota


Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama.

Area: 1,138,910 sq km

Land boundaries: 6,004 km

Border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km.

Coastlines: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower.

Environment - international agreements: Party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 9.

Economic indicators

Total at current prices   271438 Millions USD 2020
Per capita at current prices 5335 USD 2020
Growth rate per capita at constant prices -7.81.1 % 2020
Imports of goods and services (% of GDP at current prices) -20.1 % 2020
Exports of goods and services (% of GDP at current prices) 13.5 % 2020


Source: CEPALSTAT. Colombia: National Economic Profile. Databases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: February 14, 2022

Socio-demographic indicators

Total population  49 059 (000) 2020
Life expectancy 78 Years 2020-2025 
Women 81 Years 2020-2025 
Men 75 Years 2020-2025 
Public health expenditure as a percentage of GDP 7.6 % 2018
Literacy rate for persons between the ages of 15 to 24 99.0 % 2019
Net rate of enrolment in primary education 99.1 % 2019
Net rate of enrolment in secondary education 80.7 % 2019
Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP 4.5 % 2019
Gini Coefficient 0.55 % 2020
Unemployment 15.1 % 2020
Migration -3.5 % 2020


Source: Colombia: National Socio-Demographic Profile. CEPALSTAT. Data Bases and Statistical Publications. ECLAC. Inquiry: February 14, 2022

Languages: Spanish (official)


Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district (distrito capital): Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada.

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: Chief of state: President Gustavo Petro (since August 2022). Vicepresident: Francia Márquez (since August 2022)
Note: The president is both the chief of state and head of government .

Legislative branch: Bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms).

Judicial branch: Four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms).

Internet code: .co

Official Portal Web: